Description: Description: Description: École supérieure d'affaires publiques et internationales


Graduate Seminar


Peace operations and post-conflict reconstruction


API 6337

Graduate School of Public and International Affairs

University of Ottawa

Winter 2020


Prof. Roland Paris

Office: FSS 6053

Office hours: By appointment


Course Description

Concepts and practice of peacekeeping, peace-making and post-conflict reconstruction. Topics include the history and development of peace operations, early warning and conflict prevention, gender and peace operations, the role of military and civilian actors in peace operations, and the rehabilitation of countries after civil war.


Midterm exam (February 14)


Essay (due: March 16, 12 noon)


Final exam (during the exam period)




Midterm Exam

The midterm exam will cover all the course material up to the date of the exam. Duration: 2 hours.


You will write an essay examining the successes and shortcomings of one peace operation. Assignment details will be provided in class. Due date: March 16 at 12 noon. (See lateness policy, below.)

Final exam

The final exam will cover the entire course. Duration: 3 hours. You must write the final exam to pass the course.


The participation grade in this course is significant. It will be based not only on your involvement in seminar discussions, but also on evidence that you have completed and understood the weekly readings.


Click on the links in the course schedule, below. To access subscriber-only material, you may either: (1) connect to the library website from a University of Ottawa-networked computer, or (2) follow these instructions for off-campus access:

Cheating and Plagiarism

Academic fraud – including plagiarism, submitting work that was produced by someone else, or submitting the same work in more than one course – may result in a failing grade for a particular assignment, a failing grade for the course, and/or suspension for various lengths of time or permanent expulsion from the university. The onus is on each student to know and comply with the university’s regulations on academic fraud.

Lateness Policy

There will be a penalty for late submissions. Exceptions are made only for illness or other serious situations deemed as such by the professor. University regulations require all absences from exams and all late submissions due to illness to be supported by a medical certificate. The Faculty reserves the right to accept or reject the reason put forth if it is not medical. Reasons such as travel, work and errors made while reading the exam schedule are not usually accepted. In the event of an illness or related complications, only the counseling service and the campus clinic (located at 100 Marie-Curie) may issue valid certificates to justify a delay or absence. Each day of late submission will result in a penalty of 5% (weekends included). This also applies to assignments sent by email (time of receipt of the email indicates the time of delivery). Please notify the professor as soon as possible if a religious holiday or event forces your absence during an evaluation.

Mental Health and Wellness

The University of Ottawa is committed to the wellbeing of its students and to ensuring that every student can experience good mental health in order to complete their work and participate fully in university life. For more information, visit,

Sexual Violence

The University of Ottawa does not tolerate any form of sexual violence. Sexual violence refers to any act of a sexual nature committed without consent, such as rape, sexual harassment or online harassment. The University, as well as student and employee associations, offers a full range of resources and services allowing members of our community to receive information and confidential assistance and providing for a procedure to report an incident or make a complaint. For more information, visit




Course Schedule


Jan. 10           What is Peace?


Richard Caplan, “Conceptualizing Peace,” in Richard Caplan, Measuring Peace: Principles, Practices, and Politics (Oxford University Press, 2019).

Jan. 17           Origins and Development of Peace Operations


Norrie Macqueen, “Peacekeeping before the UN: the inter-war years,“ in Norrie Macqueen, Peacekeeping and the International System (Taylor and Francis, 2006), chapter 2.


Marrack Goulding, “The Evolution of United Nations Peacekeeping,” International Affairs 69:3 (July 1993), excerpt.


Roland Paris, At War’s End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict (Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 13-51.


Richard Gowan, “Peace Operations,” in Thomas G. Weiss and Sam Daws, eds., Oxford Handbook on the United Nations, 2nd edn. (Oxford University Press, 2018).


Jan. 24           Early Warning and Conflict Prevention


Laurie Nathan, Adam Day, João Honwana and Rebecca Brubaker, “Capturing UN Preventive Diplomacy Success: How and Why Does It Work?” Policy Paper, United Nations University (April 2018).


Gerrit Kurtz and Christoph O. Meyer, “Is conflict prevention a science, craft, or art? Moving beyond technocracy and wishful thinking,” Global Affairs 5:1 (2019), pp. 23-39.


Charles T. Call and Susanna P. Campbell, “Is Prevention the Answer?” Daedalus 147:1 (2018), pp. 64-77.


I. William Zartman, I William Zartman: A Pioneer in Conflict Management and Area Studies, Essays on Contention and Governance (Springer, 2019), pp. 257-265


Skim examples of early warning methods:


Hegre, Håvard et al. ViEWS: A Political Violence Early-Warning System,” Journal of Peace Research 56:2 (March 2019), pp. 155-74.


Fragile States Index


Early Warning Project

Jan. 31           Protection of Civilians and the ‘Responsibility to Protect’


Emily Paddon Rhoads and Jennifer Welsh, “Close cousins in protection: the evolution of two norms,” International Affairs 95:3 (May 2019), pp. 597-617.


United Nations Department of Peace Operations, “The Protection of Civilians in United Nations Peacekeeping,” policy guidance (November 2019), read pp. 1-20


Ingvild Bode and John Karlsrud, “Implementation in Practice: The Use of Force to Protect Civilians in United Nations Peacekeeping,” European Journal of International Relations 25:2 (June 2019), pp. 458-485.


Roland Paris, “The ‘Responsibility to Protect’ and the Structural Problems of Preventive Humanitarian Intervention,” International Peacekeeping 21:5 (2014), pp. 569-603.

Feb. 7            Hostile Environments and Peace Enforcement


Alex J. Bellamy and Charles T. Hunt, “Twenty-First Century UN Peace Operations: Protection, Force and the Changing Security Environment,” International Affairs 91:6 (November 2015), pp. 1277-1298.


Timo Smit, “Multilateral Peace Operations and the Challenges of Terrorism and Violent Extremism,” SIPRI Background Paper, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (November 2017).


Mateja Peter, “Between Doctrine and Practice: The UN Peacekeeping Dilemma,” Global Governance 21:3 (July-Sept. 2015), pp. 351-370.


Louise Riis Andersen, “The HIPPO in the room: the pragmatic push-back from the UN peace bureaucracy against the militarization of UN peacekeeping,” International Affairs 94:2 (March 2018), pp. 343-361.

Feb. 14          Midterm Exam

Feb. 21          No Meeting (University Break)

Feb. 28          Post-Conflict Peacebuilding


Roland Paris, “Peacebuilding,” in Sam Dawes and Thomas G. Weiss, eds., The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations, 2nd ed. (Oxford University Press, 2018).


Barbara F. Walter, “Why Bad Governance Leads to Repeat Civil War,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 59:7 (2014) pp. 1242-1272. 


Naazneen H. Barma, “International Intervention and Elite Incentives,” in Naazneen H. Barma, The Peacebuilding Puzzle: Political Order in Post-Conflict States (Cambridge University Press, 2016), pp. 107-151.


Séverine Autesserre, “Hobbes and the Congo: Frames, Local Violence, and International Intervention,” International Organization 63:2 (April 2009), pp. 249-280.

March 6        Gender and Peace Operations


United Nations Development Fund for Women, “Security Council Resolution 1325: Annotated and Explained”


Anne-Kathrin Kreft, “The Gender Mainstreaming Gap: Security Council Resolution 1325 and UN Peacekeeping Mandates,” International Peacekeeping 24:1 (2017), pp. 132-158.


Jeni Whalan, “Dealing with Disgrace: Addressing Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in UN Peacekeeping,” Providing for Peacekeeping no. 15, International Peace Institute (August 2017).


Karin Johansson and Lisa Hultman, “UN Peacekeeping and Protection from Sexual Violence,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 63:7 (August 2019), pp. 1656-1681.


Skim policy statements:  


“Canada's National Action Plan 2017-2022 – For the Implementation of the UN Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security” (2017) 


 “Canada Bolsters Peacekeeping and Civilian Protection Measures” (2017) 


“The Elsie Initiative on Women in Peace Operations” (2017) 


March 13     The Future of Peace Operations


Paul D. Williams, “The Security Council's Peacekeeping Trilemma,” International Affairs, published online in advance of print, November 2019.


Richard Caplan, “Peacekeeping in Turbulent Times,” International Peacekeeping 26:5 (2019), pp. 527-530.


Cedric de Coning, “Adaptive Peacebuilding,” International Affairs 94:2 (March 2018), pp. 301-317.


Roland Paris, “The Waning of Liberal Peacebuilding and the Future of Collective Conflict Management” (draft paper).


March 20     Bosnia


Daniel Serwer, From War to Peace in the Balkans, the Middle East and Ukraine (Palgrave, 2019), chapter 3.


Student papers.

March 27     Democratic Republic of Congo


Jean-Marie Guéhenno, The Fog of Peace: A Memoir of International Peacekeeping in the 21st Century (Brookings Institutions, 2015).

Chapter 5: “Democratic Republic of the Congo: The Limits of the Use of Force”

Chapter 6: “Democratic Republic of the Congo: Was It Worth It?”


Denis M. Tull, “The Limits and Unintended Consequences of UN Peace Enforcement: The Force Intervention Brigade in the DR Congo,” International Peacekeeping 25:2 (2018), pp. 167-190.


International Crisis Group, “A New Approach for the UN to Stabilize the DR Congo,” Dec. 4, 2019.


Student papers.

April 3           Mali


Hennie Strydom, “Mali and the Sahel: Making Peace in Another Rough Neighbourhood,” Netherlands International Law Review 66:1 (April 2019), pp. 75-99.


Chiara Ruffa, Sebastiaan Rietjens and Emma Nygren, “Resilience and Conflict Resolution: UN Peacekeeping in Mali,” in Eugenio Cusumano and Stefan Hofmaier, eds., Projecting Resilience Across the Mediterranean (Palgrave, 2020), pp. 189-203.


Jaïr van der Lijn, “The UN Peace Operation in Mali: A Troubled Yet Needed Mission,” International Peace Institute, Nov. 26, 2019.


Documentary shown in class.



Final exam date and location: To be confirmed.