Description: Description: Description: École supérieure d'affaires publiques et internationales



Master’s Seminar




API 6335A

Graduate School of Public and International Affairs

University of Ottawa

Winter 2021


Prof. Roland Paris

Office: FSS 6032

Office hours: By appointment


Course Description

This seminar examines both the concepts and practice of Canadian foreign policy during a period of change and uncertainty in international affairs. It examines the foundational ideas and forces shaping Canada’s foreign policy as well as key international issues and relationships – the US and North America, Asia, defence policy, development assistance, global governance and the Arctic – with the goal of understanding both the policy issues and the challenges and opportunities facing Canada. The course readings are a blend of scholarly and policy writings that permit students to apply core concepts to a selection of contemporary challenges facing Canadian foreign policymakers.


Response papers (3 x 15%)


Midterm exam


Final exam




Response papers

You will write three response papers during the semester. Deadline: 12 noon the day before the relevant class meeting. Late papers will be subject to penalties (see lateness policy below). Detailed instructions will be provided in class.

Midterm exam

The midterm exam will cover all the course material up to the date of the exam. It will take place during the regular class period. Duration: 1.5 hours.

Final exam

The final exam will cover the entire course. It will be a take home exam, during the exam period. Duration: 24 hours. You must write the final exam to pass the course.


The participation grade will be based not only on your involvement in seminar discussions, but also on evidence that you have completed and understood the weekly readings. If circumstances make it difficult for you to participate in online discussions, please speak to the professor.


Most of the readings are linked to this syllabus. To access subscriber-only material, you may either: (1) connect to the library website from a University of Ottawa-networked computer, or (2) follow these instructions for off-campus access:

Cheating and Plagiarism

Academic fraud – including plagiarism, submitting work that was produced by someone else, or submitting the same work in more than one course – may result in a failing grade for a particular assignment, a failing grade for the course, and/or suspension for various lengths of time or permanent expulsion from the university.  The onus is on each student to know and comply with the university’s regulations on academic fraud.

Lateness Policy

There will be a penalty for late submissions. Exceptions are made only for illness or other serious situations deemed as such by the professor. University regulations require all absences from exams and all late submissions due to illness to be supported by a medical certificate. The Faculty reserves the right to accept or reject the reason put forth if it is not medical. Reasons such as travel, work and errors made while reading the exam schedule are not usually accepted. Each day of late submission will result in a penalty of 5% (weekends included). This also applies to assignments sent by email (time of receipt of the email indicates the time of delivery). Please notify the professor as soon as possible if a religious holiday or event forces your absence during an evaluation.

Mental Health and Wellness

The University of Ottawa is committed to the wellbeing of its students and to ensuring that every student can experience good mental health in order to complete their work and participate fully in university life. For more information, visit,

Sexual Violence

The University of Ottawa does not tolerate any form of sexual violence. Sexual violence refers to any act of a sexual nature committed without consent, such as rape, sexual harassment or online harassment. The University, as well as student and employee associations, offers a full range of resources and services allowing members of our community to receive information and confidential assistance and providing for a procedure to report an incident or make a complaint. For more information, visit





Course Schedule


Jan. 15          Introduction to the Course


John Lewis Gaddis, On Grand Strategy (Penguin, 2018), chapter 1, “Crossing the Hellespont.”

Jan. 22          The Context of Canadian Foreign Policy


Kim Richard Nossal, Stéphane Roussel and Stéphane Paquin, The Politics of Canadian Foreign Policy, 4th edition (McGill-Queens University Press, 2015), pp. 1-180.

Jan. 29          Policy Paradigms


A. J. Miller, “The Functional Principle in Canada's External Relations,” International Journal 35:2 (Spring 1980), pp. 309-328.


Alan Gotlieb, “Romanticism and Realism in Canada’s Foreign Policy,” Policy Options (February 2005), pp. 16-27.


Roland Paris, “Are Canadians Still Liberal Internationalists? Foreign Policy and Public Opinion in the Harper Era,” International Journal 69:3 (September 2014), pp. 274-307.


Heather A. Smith, “Disrupting Internationalism and Finding the Others,” in Claire Turenne Sjolander, Heather Smith and Deborah Stienstra, eds., Feminist Perspectives on Canadian Foreign Policy (Oxford University Press, 2003), chapter 3, pp. 24-39.

Feb. 5            Foreign Policy Strategies since World War II: Primary Sources


Louis St. Laurent, “The Foundations of Canadian Policy in World Affairs,” Duncan and John Gray Memorial Lecture, University of Toronto, January 13, 1947.


Foreign Policy for Canadians (1970).


Competitiveness and Security: Directions for Canada’s International Affairs (1985).


Canada in the World (1995).


Lloyd Axworthy, “Canada and Human Security: The Need for Leadership,” International Journal 52:2 (1997), pp. 183-96.


A Role of Pride and Influence in the World (2005).


Stephen Harper, “Reviving Canadian Leadership in the World,” October 5, 2006.


Chrystia Freeland, “Address by Minister Freeland on Canada’s Foreign Policy Priorities,” June 6, 2017.


Feb. 12          Relations with the United States


Robert W. Cox, “A Canadian Dilemma: The United States or the World,” International Journal 60:3 (Summer 2005), pp. 667-684.


Greg Anderson, “Trump’s ‘American System’ and Canada,” American Review of Canadian Studies 50:1 (2020), pp. 32-47.


Geoffrey Hale, “Cross-Border Energy Infrastructure: The Politics of Intermesticity,” in David Carment and Chris Sands, eds., Canada-US Relations: Sovereignty or Shared Institutions? (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019), pp. 163-192.


Todd Hataley and Christian Leuprecht, “Canada-US Security Cooperation: Interests, Institutions, Identity and Ideas,” in David Carment and Christopher Sands, eds., Canada-US Relations: Sovereignty or Shared Institutions? (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019), pp. 87-104.

Feb. 19          University Break Week

Feb. 26          Midterm Exam

March 5        Canada’s “Asia Problem”


Christopher J. Kukucha, “Neither Adapting nor Innovating: The Limited Transformation of Canadian Foreign Trade Policy since 1984,” Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 24:3 (2018), pp. 301-315.


Jeffrey Reeves, “Canada and the Free and Open Indo-Pacific: A Strategic Assessment,” Asia Policy 27:4 (2020), pp. 51-64.


Brian L. Job, “Between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Dilemmas of Middle Powers,” Issues and Studies 56:2 (June 2020).


Roland Paris, "Canadian Views on China: From Ambivalence to Distrust," Chatham House (July 2020).


Mary M. Young and Susan J. Henders, “’Other Diplomacies’ and the Making of Canada-Asia Relations,” Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 18:3 (2012), pp. 375-388.

March 12     Defence Policy


Christian Leuprecht and Joel Sokolsky, “Defence Policy ‘Walmart Style’: Canadian Lessons in ‘Not-So-Grand’ Grand Strategy,” Armed Forces and Society 41(3), 2015, pp. 541-562.


Department of National Defence. Strong, Secure, Engaged: Canada’s Defence Policy (2017)


Lindsay Rodman, “You’ve Got It All Backwards: Canada’s National Defence Strategy,” in Thomas Juneau, Philippe Lagassé and Srdjan Vucetic, eds., Canadian Defence Policy in Theory and Practice (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019).


Stephanie Carvin, “Canadian Defence and New Technologies,” in Thomas Juneau, Philippe Lagassé and Srdjan Vucetic, eds., Canadian Defence Policy in Theory and Practice (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019).


George MacDonald, “Defence Policy Perspectives: Special Interests and Lobbying,” in Thomas Juneau, Philippe Lagassé and Srdjan Vucetic, eds., Canadian Defence Policy in Theory and Practice (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019).

March 19     Development Assistance


Adam Chapnick, “The Origins of Canada’s Feminist Foreign Policy,” International Journal 74:2 (June 2019), pp. 191-205.


Government of Canada, “Canada’s Feminist International Assistance Policy,” Global Affairs Canada, 2017.


Heather Smith and Tari Ajadi, “Canada’s Feminist Foreign Policy and Human Security Compared,” International Journal 75:3 (Sept. 2020), pp. 367-82.


Stephen Brown, “All About that Base? Branding and the Domestic Politics of Canadian Foreign Aid,” Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 24:2 (2018), pp. 145-164.


Arne Ruckert, Ronald Labonté and Raphael Lencucha, “Health in Canadian Foreign Policy: The Role of Norms and Security Interests,” Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 25:3 (2019), pp. 325-341.

March 26     The Arctic


Series: “How a Melting Arctic Changes Everything,” Bloomberg (2017):


Part 1: Eric Roston and Blacki Migliozzi, “The Bare Arctic,” April 19, 2017.


Part 2: Eric Roston and Blacki Migliozzi, “The Political Arctic,” May 16, 2017.


Part 3: Eric Roston, “The Economic Arctic,” December 29, 2017.


Adam Lajeunesse and Whitney Lackenbauer P. (2020) Defence Policy in the Canadian Arctic: From Jean Chrétien to Justin Trudeau, in Thomas Juneau, Philippe Lagassé and Srdjan Vucetic, eds., Canadian Defence Policy in Theory and Practice (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019).


Report of the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Development Nation-Building at Home, “Vigilance Beyond: Preparing for the Coming Decades in the Arctic,” House of Commons, Canada (April 2019). (pdf)


Andreas Østhagen, Gregory Levi Sharp and Paal Sigurd Hilde, “At Opposite Poles: Canada’s and Norway’s Approaches to Security in the Arctic,” Polar Journal 8:1 (2018), pp. 163-181.

April 2           Holiday (No Meeting)

April 9           The International Order


Henry Farrell and Abraham L. Newman, “Weaponized Interdependence: How Global Economic Networks Shape State Coercion,” International Security 44:1 (Summer 2019), pp. 42-79.


Anne-Marie Slaughter, “How to Succeed in the Networked World: A Grand Strategy for the Digital Age,” Foreign Affairs (November-December 2016), pp. 76-81.


Roland Paris, “Can Middle Powers Save the Liberal World Order?” Chatham House (June 18, 2019).


Amitav Acharya, “After Liberal Hegemony: The Advent of a Multiplex World Order,” Ethics and International Affairs 31:3 (2017), pp. 271-285.

April 13        New Directions?


Robert Greenhill and Jennifer Welsh, “Reframing Canada’s Global Engagement: Diagnostic of Key Trends and Sources of Influence” Global Canada (August 2020).


Roland Paris, “Navigating New World Disorder: Canada’s Post-Pandemic Foreign Policy,” Public Policy Forum (July 2020). (English) (Français)


[Video] Roland Paris, “Building Canada's Post-Pandemic Foreign Policy,” interview with OpenCanada (October 2020).


Richard Haas, “Repairing the World: The Imperative—and Limits—of a Post-Trump Foreign Policy,” Foreign Affairs (Nov. 9, 2020).


Paul Wells, “A Biden-Trudeau Partnership Will Require Real Work,” Macleans (Dec. 9, 2020).


Marie-Danielle Smith,Canada's Foreign Policy Agenda in 2021,” Macleans (Dec. 16, 2020).